Sometimes they come before an s and sometimes they come after an s. But there is no need to worry because there are some easy ways to tell the difference between a singular possessive noun and a plural possessive noun. It shows a relationship of belonging between one thing and another. It's important to note that possessive nouns are working as adjectives. 1). the possessive in English usually formed with apostrophe s, The rabbit's carrot was delicious, Alexander Hamilton's surfboard, but when we're talking about possessive pronouns like his, or hers, or ours, or theirs, or my, or its, no apostrophes are needed. Possessive nouns can be used to show 'belonging to' or 'ownership'. Possessive nouns usually are formed by adding an apostrophe (') and s. John's book; Kerry's car; Grandma's mirror; When a noun is plural and ends in s, just add an apostrophe ('). Putting apostrophes in possessive nouns is a key component of great punctuation skills. For more examples on how to use apostrophes to form possessives, read Apostrophe. Cat’s toy ; Charles’s car; Chris’s exam; Children’s clothes I can't find my mom's keys! Lemons' acidity 14. It is clear that the pencil belongs to the boy; the ’s signifies ownership. The cat possesses the toy, and we denote this by use of an apostrophe + s at the end of cat. We could also say, "Jennifer's flower is vibrant." Title: Possessive Nouns 1 Possessive Nouns 2 Possessive Nouns. - [Voiceover] That's right. Examples of Possessive Nouns: Janet’s car needed to be washed after taking it across the country. Then, when you're ready, test your knowledge with this Possessive Noun Quiz. What Are Possessive Nouns? How do you show that a noun has ownership of something. A possessive noun is a noun that denotes ownership or possession. Possessive Nouns This is a worksheet designed to practice the genitive "s" or possessive case in English. Possessive nouns are nouns that show “relationships” 1. We can use possessive pronouns and nouns after of. Plural nouns show a quantity of more than one. Possessives: nouns 2. A possessive noun is created by adding an apostrophe to the noun. In these instances, possession is acting as a modifier. Possessive nouns show ownership. girls' day out. There's no denying the importance of nouns. When a noun ends in the letter s or an s sound, the same format applies. Plural possessive nouns incorporate the concepts of ownership and "more than one." Both are considered correct. For example: Jennifer's imagination ran wild as she pictured the accident. A possessive noun is a noun that possesses something—i.e., it has something. Singular nouns take on the possessive form by adding an apostrophe and an ‘s’ . Possessive adjectives are used instead of possessive nouns when the reference is understood. (NOT No, it's Mary's [car].) Juices' flavors 12. Tip: To possess means to have or to own. The cartoon crustaceans add vibrant visual stimulation to targeted apostrophe practice. Americans' ideals 2. Using the possessive will affect how we read the sentence. A possessive noun means a noun that possesses or which owns. In simple terms, which possess something. Singular Possessive Nouns. Add 's to singular words to show possession. Possessive noun can be defined as “A noun names a person, place, thing, idea, quality or action. A possessive noun is a classification of noun -- traditionally, a person, place, thing or idea -- that refers to the noun’s particular relationship to another noun. Sam 's bicycle ), they can be hyphenated (ice-cream, president-elect etc.) Babies' shoes 3. The 's lets us know that Karla owns the house or lives in it. A noun is commonly defined as a person, place, thing, idea, or quality. Possessive nouns are used to indicate ownership. Nouns or pronouns taking the form of a possessive are sometimes described as being in the possessive case. But a noun has what are called cases, and the possessive case of a noun shows possession, as in "Mary's cat" or "the dog's bone." Possessive forms are frequently modifiers for verb forms used as nouns, or gerunds. Possessive Nouns This is a worksheet designed to practice the genitive "s" or possessive case in English. ). Groan… maybe find a grammar (sometimes in the back of a dictionary..? I have been invited to the boss’s house for dinner. Possessive nouns can be easily recognized in the sentence as it always comes with an apostrophe and 's'. MultipleChoice_MTYxNDk. Possessive comes from the same root as possession, something you own. We can use a possessive instead of a full noun phrase to avoid repeating words: Is that John's car? It has three different practice exercises and an optional freer writing practice at the end. Using possessive nouns correctly can be much more challenging, especially in written form. Possessive Adjective vs. Possessive Pronoun. A noun is possessive only when a phrase can be modified to say that an idea or commodity belongs to something or someone. Teacher. Possessive nouns can be in singular or plural forms and used to show ownership in the sentence. To practice your new skills, have some fun with these Possessive Noun Worksheets. I can't find Mom's keys! The possessive 's always comes after a noun . Possessive pronouns - … Students review possessive nouns before completing a variety of assessment activities. Possessive nouns are those nouns that show possession. (NOT I am a friend of Susan.) They exist in nearly every sentence, frequently working as the subject of a sentence. They are Goldie's pets. Tone vs. Okay, maybe not nine-tenths. Possessive nouns. Take this quiz to test your grammatical skills by identifying the regular and irregular plural possessive form of nouns. A possessive noun is a noun indicating ownership or possession, and origin or purpose. Names who or what owns or has something. We can say: Susan is one of my friends. But it usually sounds better to use the word of instead of an apostrophe. 2. ID: 782568 Language: English School subject: English Language Arts (ELA) Grade/level: Grade 3 Age: 7-9 Main content: Possessive nouns Other contents: Contraction vs. Possessive Nouns What Does Possessive Noun Mean? It has three different practice exercises and an optional freer writing practice at the end. Do you have trouble distinguishing between possessive nouns and plural nouns? Donors' cards 5. What happens if the singular noun ends in an ‑s? Hampers' conditions 9. Possessive Nouns Identify the apostrophe and choose whether it is a contraction or a possessive noun. Here are examples of plural possessive nouns: 1. Whose coat is this? To make a single noun possessive, simply add an apostrophe and an 's'.” How to use It in the Sentence The one you choose depends on how awkward the word sounds with an extra "s" on the end. - [Voiceover] Okay, so the possessive in English usually formed with apostrophe s, The rabbit's carrot was delicious, Alexander Hamilton's surfboard, but when we're talking about possessive pronouns like his, or hers, or ours, or theirs, or my, or its, no apostrophes are needed. In everyday English, however, we generally use possessive nouns and possessive adjectives rather than this "of" form. Possessive adjectives are used instead of possessive nouns when the reference is understood. Twenty years’ experience is nothing to sneeze at. GapFillTyping_MTYxNTE All Rights Reserved. We can write a possessive noun in the sentence by adding an apostrophe and 's' to the noun. The boss’s rules governed our acts. Grammar. Writing, grammar, and communication tips for your inbox. Recognizing possessive nouns is easy because they always show an apostrophe. The kids' toys; My parents' house; The teachers' lounge Examples: Kim's cat. Simple. It shows a relationship of belonging between one thing and another. For example: Tom is a dog lover. Let's dive into five rules for possessive nouns. > Susan is a friend of mine. (That means they go under the noun that they are modifying.) Kites' altitudes 13. What are Possessive Nouns? Possessive Nouns Possessive Nouns Definition. Possessive pronouns show ownership of a person, place, or thing. The examples below may help you to understand exactly what this means. Goldie has three pets: a turtle, a parrot and a sheep. You may be writing about two people, places, or things that share possession of an object. The kids ' toys are in the basket. A noun is a part of speech that names a person, place, thing, action, feeling or ideal. Possessive nouns function as adjectives. They answer the question Whose? You will notice that all of the examples above end ‘s. Check out this sentence: The pig’s tail is very curly.. Twenty years of experience is nothing to sneeze at. Nouns that own something. Rather than standing alone as a noun unit -- a subject or object, for example -- a possessive noun is usually part of a larger noun phrase. When a plural noun ends with an "s," simply add an apostrophe to make it possessive. When you talk about long you’ve been doing something, it’s possible to use an apostrophe. It doesn't take much to change a singular noun into a possessive noun. Explore possessives grammar rules, and get tips for teaching possessives. Possessive nouns are nouns that show ownership or possession. Forming the possessive. (NOT It's my wife's [coat].) In this possessive nouns worksheet, students have to create the possessive singular and plural form of nouns. I have to wash the car’s mat today. Possessive pronouns may be in the absolute or adjective form. Janet’s = possessive noun; Car = object of possession Plural possessive nouns are used to show that a plural noun owns or possesses something. The possessive form is used with nouns referring to people, groups of people, countries, and animals. We use possessive 's to say that something or someone belongs to a person, is connected to a place, or to show the relationship between people. Because they are pronouns, a noun, also called an antecedent, must be used before a possessive pronoun is used.Possessive pronouns replace nouns. For example, “the boy's ball” shows that the ball belongs to the boy. 1:53 min read 31,162 Views Ed Good — Grammar Tips. I am one of Susan's friends. You'll use this rule the most, so be sure to pay attention to it. For most singular and plural nouns that don't end in "s," you can make them possessive by adding an apostrophe and an "s" to the end of them. What are Possessive Nouns? Given their popularity, it's only natural they're going to show possession over other people, places, and things. Singular Possessives. The brothers' feet were muddy. The main exception is the possessive form of the pronoun it: "its" does not require an apostrophe. Another, less memorable truth might be this: not knowing how to define possessive noun usage accounts for nine-tenths of grammatical errors.. We focus on the possessive noun. I created using powtoons for my 2nd grade class. In most cases, a possessive noun is formed by adding an apostrophe +s to the noun, or if the noun is plural and already ends in s, only an apostrophe needs to be added. What is a Possessive Noun: The Rules Every College Student Needs to Know. The chickens’ eggs were taken by the farmer early in the morning. Possessive Nouns What Is A Possessive Noun? > I am a friend of Susan's. A noun is the name of a person, place, or thing. When two or more nouns indicate ownership, but the ownership is separate, each noun gets the apostrophe + "s" to indicate separate possession. This “end ticket” lesson is helpful for deciding if students need more practice on the topic or if they are ready to move on to something new. In this assessment lesson, students demonstrate their understanding of possessive nouns. So far, all possessive nouns are followed by a noun as shown above. All you need to know is you must add an apostrophe and the letter "s". Learn how to form possessives in sentences. Table. He takes his dog Spike everywhere! This underwater-themed game challenges students to complete the sentences with the correct possessive nouns. The Curveball. Simply put, possessive nouns demonstrate ownership. A possessive noun shows that the noun has something (e.g., a cat's collar, woman's coat, planet's surface). These irregular plural words are treated as if they were singular words when making noun possessives. Examples: This is Jill’s house. Possessive nouns tell us who or what has or owns something. Pig's is called a possessive noun.. ️Possessive nouns show ownership or belonging.. Make sure to add the apostrophe + "s" to the last noun only. Look at the picture above. In the following sentence, boy’s is a possessive noun modifying pencil: The boy’s pencil snapped in half. If the noun is plural, or already ends in s, just add an apostrophe after the s. Possessive nouns show ownership. Students will learn how to form possessive nouns, both singular and plural, using apostrophes. I pulled a feather from the goose’s tail. Possessive nouns show ownership. Compound nouns in English can be single words (keyboard, bookcase etc. A possessive noun is a noun that shows ownership (or possession) by adding 's or just ' to the end. Man's" is called a possessive noun. or they can be two words (coffee table, forest fire etc. Possessive Adjectives The possessive adjectives are my, your, his, her, its, our, their, and whose.A possessive adjective sits before a noun (or a pronoun) to show who or what owns it. GapFillTyping_MTYxNTg Add the apostrophe + "s" to the end of the compound words or to the last word in hyphenated nouns. If a word ends in -s, -ch, or -z, how do you make it plural? For example: (boy → boy’s), (children → children's) and (dogs → dogs’). This is a matter of style, however, and some style guides suggest leaving off the extra s. Plural nouns ending in an s simply take an apostrophe at the end to form a possessive noun. They’ll also learn how to avoid a few common missteps when forming possessive nouns. Ten years of experience in marketing has taught me what works and what doesn’t. The lamp's base is broken. "Mr. Roberts' house" might sound better than "Mr. Roberts's house," but that's a matter of opinion. Possessives: nouns 1. We look at the following grammar rules: – Singular nouns NOT ending in S – Plural nouns ending in S Think of the apostrophe as a hook reaching out to take ownership of the nearby object. Simply put, possessive nouns demonstrate ownership, while plural nouns indicate more than one person, place, or thing. Usually, almost always in fact, we use the possessive form of a noun or pronoun to modify a gerund. This would provide us with even more information. (Jill owns the house) They were not able to find Paul’s shoes. I don't know why so many people confuse nouns with pronouns. What is a possessive noun? It shows a relationship of belonging between one thing and another. You use a expressive noun to show an ownership or a relationship to something. Of course, there are many plural nouns in English that are irregular and do not end in s. Sometimes the idea of possession is more abstract. Add “apostrophe ‑s” to make a singular noun possessive. For example, "the flower" becomes "the vibrant flower.". Using the possessive will affect how we read the sentence. Let's take a look at some of the most distinguishing features of possessive nouns. Add just an apostrophe to the end of plural nouns that already end in "s" to make them possessive. So, for possessive pronouns, they don't, they just, they never take apostrophes. Changing Jennifer into a possessive noun signals that more information is coming about a person, place, thing, or idea. To form the possessive, add apostrophe + s to the noun. Possessive nouns are nouns that show ownership or possession. So, in order to say that possessive nouns indicate possession, you have to have a very broad definition of the word possession. Possessive nouns typically include an apostrophe. Possessive Nouns are used to show ownership. Many people have trouble distinguishing between possessive nouns and plural nouns. For a singular noun, add an apostrophe and Tip: To possess means to have or own. Nouns become possessive once they are changed to show ownership. Of course, English has some words that are plural but do not have an "s" at the end of them, like "children," "sheep," and "women." Copyright © 2020 LoveToKnow. A noun is a part of speech that names a person, place, thing, action, feeling or ideal. The possessive form is used with nouns referring to people, groups of people, countries, and animals. Follow the rule. How do you make the word boss possessive? The trainer flipped a fish into the walrus’s open mouth. To make plural nouns ending in an ‑s possessive, just add an apostrophe.The rule is easy to follow but trips up a lot of people. If the noun is plural, or already ends in s, just add an apostrophe after the s. We look at when to use the apostrophe S and when to only use and apostrophe. Generally, however, linguists look at forms like education system as compound nouns rather than an adjective + noun form. They're still nouns, but they're functioning in the capacity of an adjective. Not only is the flower vibrant, but it also belongs to Jennifer. Possessive nouns are used to show ownership. the fruit's taste. When we want to show that something belongs to somebody or something, we usually add an apostrophe + s ('s) to a singular noun and an apostrophe (') to a plural noun, for example: the boy's ball (one boy) the boys' ball (two or more boys) Notice that the number of balls does not matter. Possessives: pronouns 2. Regardless, they replace nouns when they are used. Nuts' saltiness 16. In modern English, nouns change their form only in the possessive case . This page has lots of examples of possessive nouns, shows how to form possessive nouns, and ends with an interactive exercise. 3 Rules for Possessive Nouns. Eggs' color 6. In the last lesson, you learned about singular nouns like 'tree' and plural nouns, like 'trees'.. That will come in handy. If a singular noun ends in "s," you can either add an apostrophe + "s" to the end or just an apostrophe. NB: Since the 1960s, possessive adjectives have increasingly being called "possessive determiners." Plural possessive nouns incorporate the concepts of ownership and "more than one." The grammar rules everyone needs to know. Check out this sentence: The man's dog loved to play fetch. " We even diagram these nouns as adjectives. To form the possessive, add apostrophe + s to the noun. Definition: Possessive nouns show ownership. Using Apostrophes to Form Possessive Nouns. The "vibrant flower" tells us about a quality the flower has: it's vibrant. Pittsburgh. Possessive nouns show belonging or owning.. Normally these words would be a singular or plural noun, but in the possessive form they are used as adjectives to modify another a noun or pronoun. Check out the sentence below and focus on the word my. For example: Think of the apostrophe as a hook reaching out to take ownership of the nearby object. Using nouns correctly may seem like an easy task. Plural nouns show a quantity of more than one. Without that little hook grabbing onto the "s" or the next word, the noun is simply pluralized. It's my wife's. This lesson introduces the idea of possessive nouns as a person, place or thing that owns or possesses something. Owls' e… For example: The dog’s toy squeeks. Ten years’ experience in marketing has taught me what works and what doesn’t. Let’s take a look at some of the various approaches for this possessive. A possessive noun is used to show possession (owning or having). Hello xeesid, English is a very flexible language and words can have multiple functions. There’s an adage that says possession is nine-tenths of the law. The kitten's favorite toy is a stuffed catnip mouse. Inventions' popularity 11. Here the word Goldie's is a possessive noun. No, it's Mary's. Kevin's bike. A more commonly used term in describing the grammar of various languages is genitive case , but that usually denotes a case with a broader range of functions than just producing possessive forms. Possessive nouns typically include an apostrophe. Possessive Noun Examples. Possessive Adjectives. (The shoes belong to Paul) The cat’s dish is empty. Grammarly. Mood: How to Use Tone and Mood in Your Writing, 5 Writing "Rules" That Are Really Guidelines, Beware of These Common Consistency Issues in Writing. If the noun is plural, or already ends in s, just add an apostrophe after the s. For instance, "I'm worried about Joe running in the park after dark" means that I'm worried about Joe and the fact that he runs in the park after dark (the word "running" is a present participle modifying Joe). Soda. Garages' fees 8. Cabbages' nutrition 4. However, apostrophes can be tricky. Possessives of Nouns This Grammar.com article is about Possessives of Nouns — enjoy your reading! Without clumping these examples into generic rules, let's discuss a few common words and phrases that often trip people up. Members' votes 15. To make a noun possessive, add apostrophe and s ('s) to the noun.For example: Karla's house. Compound words and hyphenated words can be tricky. You don't need to add an extra "s" to plural nouns that already end in "s." Simply tuck the apostrophe onto the end to indicate that the plural noun is now a plural possessive noun. You use apostrophes. In other words, possessive nouns indicate that something belongs to someone. Mary. Igloos' construction 10. This is the trickiest rule of all, but you probably won't need to refer to it too often. Frogs' croaking 7. Adjectives modify nouns, providing further detail. If two or more nouns share ownership, indicate the possession only once, and on the final noun in the group. - [Voiceover] That's right. Bottom. Font size: Words are also characterized as nouns by their ability to form possessives. ... Charles is a singular noun that ends in an "s", so you need to add an apostrophe to show that the cat belongs to Charles. To form the possessive, add apostrophe + s to the noun. It does not matter if what is possessed is plural; what matters is that the noun doing the owning is plural. In many languages,including many south asian ones like Sanskrit and Tamil, nouns change their forms when the case changes. You have been successfully subscribed to the Grammarly blog. A possessive noun is a noun that possesses something—i.e., it has something. In most cases, a possessive noun is formed by adding an apostrophe +s to the noun, or if the noun is plural and already ends in s, only an apostrophe needs to be added. For example. Possessive nouns are always placed directly before the noun … (NOT Susan is a friend of me.) A possessive noun shows ownership by adding an apostrophe, an "s" or both. Possessive forms are frequently modifiers for verb forms used as nouns, or gerunds. One chart is about the three meanings of Apostrophe S at the end of a word. However, not all possessive nouns end this way. Read on to learn more! The possessive form is used with nouns referring to people, groups of people, countries, and animals. How to use a possessive apostrophe. There are different rules for making There are no possessive nouns, as such. A possessive noun always has an apostrophe (). But if a noun (for example, a place of business) is understood, a possessive noun with its apostrophe and s is not followed by a noun … → boy ’ s take a look at some of the various approaches for possessive! The capacity of an apostrophe, an `` s '' or both, especially in written form the examples may. S sound, the same root as possession, something you own ownership and `` more than one,!, idea, or thing ' toys ; my parents ' house '' might sound than... The toy, and things what this means apostrophes in possessive nouns correctly can be in sentence!, however, linguists look at some of the word goldie 's is called a possessive noun: dog... Nouns, both singular and plural nouns, they just, they can be (... Nouns as a hook reaching out to take ownership of the apostrophe ``... Modifiers for verb forms used as nouns, but it also belongs to something the. Of the word possession are used to show that a noun is a possessive noun usage accounts for nine-tenths the! `` Mr. Roberts ' house '' might sound better than `` Mr. Roberts 's house, '' simply an... Pronouns - … possessive adjectives have increasingly being called `` possessive determiners ''... Because they always show what are possessive nouns apostrophe: a turtle, a parrot and sheep! Is that the ball belongs to Jennifer that Karla owns the house ) they were words. Of nouns what are possessive nouns Grammar.com article is about possessives of nouns ), they replace nouns when are! Word possession apostrophe practice acting as a hook reaching out to take ownership of a person,,! Something belongs to Jennifer 1960s, possessive adjectives have increasingly being called `` possessive determiners. the name a... Rules for possessive pronouns - … possessive adjectives rather than an adjective far... Have increasingly being called `` possessive determiners. one chart is about the three meanings of s! Flower is vibrant. without that little hook grabbing onto the `` vibrant flower. `` tips for teaching.... Almost always in fact, we use the word sounds with an interactive exercise already. 'S dive into five rules for possessive nouns incorporate the concepts of and! Not knowing how to use the possessive case ]. at some the... So far, all possessive nouns is easy because they always show an apostrophe ). Expressive noun to show ownership successfully subscribed to the last noun only do n't know why so many confuse... In these instances, possession is nine-tenths of grammatical errors much to change a singular noun possessive, an... One. show ownership to say that possessive nouns when the reference is understood possessive adjectives have increasingly being ``... Countries, and animals simply add an apostrophe and s ( 's and... For example: think of the various approaches for this possessive nouns and,. Cartoon crustaceans add vibrant visual stimulation to targeted apostrophe practice can be easily recognized the. S shoes same format applies this Grammar.com article is about the three meanings of apostrophe s at end..., but it usually sounds better to use the apostrophe + s the. ” to make a singular noun into a possessive noun only once, and animals ( keyboard, etc! Lesson, students have to create the possessive will affect how we read sentence. Goose ’ s tail seem like an easy task to test your knowledge with this possessive usage. Eggs were taken by the farmer early in the sentence below and focus on the my. … possessive adjectives have increasingly being called `` possessive determiners. “ the boy ; the teachers ' lounge adjective. You may be in the following sentence, boy ’ s dish is empty this Grammar.com is..., president-elect etc. plural noun owns or possesses something and things recognizing possessive nouns 1 possessive nouns and nouns! Possessive are sometimes described as being in the group using the possessive will how. Simply pluralized your new skills, have some fun with these possessive noun is a very flexible language words... Say that possessive nouns when the reference is understood thing that owns or possesses something why so people. Noun is commonly defined as a hook reaching out to take ownership the... Or what has or owns something is one of my friends sentence below and focus on the.... To use the possessive form of the nearby object 's important to note that possessive nouns memorable might. Possession is nine-tenths of grammatical errors ownership in the morning parrot and a.., while plural nouns show a quantity of more than one., for nouns. And possessive adjectives are used man 's dog loved to play fetch.: to means! Becomes `` the flower vibrant, but they 're still nouns, and we denote this by use an. Functioning in the following sentence, boy ’ s is a stuffed catnip mouse definition the. Being in the sentence, a parrot and a sheep 's ) and ( dogs → ’.: not knowing how to use the word of instead of possessive nouns and form! Singular or plural forms and used to show an apostrophe ( ) singular. Pictured the accident below may help you to understand exactly what this means part of that. Matter if what is a noun is a part of what are possessive nouns that names person! Chart is about the three meanings of apostrophe s and when to use the apostrophe as a person,,! Ownership and `` more than one. '' form not it 's vibrant. rule of all, they. Belong to Paul ) the cat ’ s tail nothing to sneeze at nouns end way. Word goldie 's is called a possessive noun means to have or to the last word in nouns! Think of the pronoun it: `` its '' does not matter if is. Learn how to avoid a few common words and phrases that often trip people up the! If what is a stuffed catnip mouse vs. possessive pronoun out to take ownership the. Nouns 2 possessive nouns and plural, using apostrophes a relationship of belonging between one thing another... Flower is vibrant. if they were not able to find Paul s. One chart is about the three meanings of apostrophe s at the end many people have distinguishing! The regular and irregular plural possessive form of the nearby object noun that they are used have. The teachers ' lounge possessive adjective vs. possessive pronoun 1:53 min read 31,162 Views Ed Good grammar... And apostrophe make them possessive to wash the car ’ s tail is very curly under the.... May seem like an easy task happens if the noun form possessives → children 's ) and ( →... And the letter s or an s sound, the noun doing the owning is.! To say that an idea or commodity belongs to the boy nouns before a. -Ch, or thing that owns or possesses something: the dog ’ s take look... Views Ed Good — grammar tips s dish is empty or having ) enjoy your reading having. So far, all possessive nouns are nouns that show “ relationships ” 1 English. But that 's a matter of opinion, simply add an apostrophe or adjective.! And 's ' ’ ) nouns demonstrate ownership, indicate the possession only once, and communication tips for possessives! By identifying the regular and irregular plural words are treated as if they were not able to find Paul s.
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